Project Page: github/simple-pex

Recently I needed to create a package for a simple Python CLI tool which includes all dependencies. It turns out that there is a great tool PEX which can build an executable zip Python package.

That’s exactly what I needed, but unfortunately the documentation for my simple use case was sorely lacking. Described here is how to get PEX working to package a simple CLI tool.

Requirements

Using Python3 and PEX as installed by pip

Structure

Key factors * setup.py is required to allow building a wheel for the CLI tool * source must be in a package directory (even if it’s only one file)

/setup.py
/samplepkg/
/samplepkg/__init__.py
/samplepkg/main.py

setup.py

The setup.py contains a package description. More details can be found here.

init.py

Empty file to mark samplepkg as a package directory

main.py

The actual CLI code entry point

Build

PEX requires first that we build a wheel from the sources, then include that wheel in the PEX build

Wheel Build

In the directory containing setup.py run

pip3 wheel -w . .

This will create a wheel in the current directory based on the name set in setup.py. In this example the file generated is

myexample-0.0.0-py3-none-any.whl

PEX Build

Now we build the PEX package.

pex --python=python3 -f $PWD requests myexample -e samplepkg.main -o samplepkg.pex

Breakdown:

  • -f $PWD - Causes the current directory to be included in the search path, which allows the myexample-*.whl to be loaded
  • requests - Added dependency on the requests package. Any other dependencies can be added as extra arguments here
  • myexample - Loads the wheel that we just built
  • -e samplepkg.main - The execution command to run, in this case load our main.py which starts the CLI
  • -o samplepkg.pex - Write the whole shindig to the shippable file samplepkg.pex

And try running the generated package

$ ./samplepkg.pex
HELLO WORLD!!

Notes

Python Version

Both pex and pip wheel must use the same version of Python. Without being explicit about version it’s possible for the two to get crossed. If this happens you will get an error running pex: “Could not satisfy all requirements” which means that the wheel file couldn’t be found for the current Python version. You can tell what version was used for pip wheel by the -pyX- portion of the wheel file name.

In the code above I explicitly selected Python 3 to be used. To use Python 2 instead, edit the commands above to replace pip3 with pip2 and pex --python=python3 with pex --python-python2